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Abstracts Volume 6
A rare case of congenital esophageal diverticulum in a male, intact, 2-month-old Yorkshire terrier is described in the present report. This is a congenital malformation of the esophageal wall that occurred during fetal development, resulting in incomplete formation of the lamina muscularis and, consequently, herniation of the esophageal wall and distension of the esophageal lumen. The main causes of admission included vomiting and regurgitation. This congenital defect was diagnosed based on esophageal endoscopy findings. Treatment was conservative and included the administration of metoclopramide and dietary guidelines.
Elbow hygroma is a serous fluid accumulation over the olecranon caused by repetitive trauma in dogs lying on hard surfaces during housing. Diagnosis is made by physical examination and fi ne needle aspiration of the hygroma cavity. Treatment may be conservative or surgical. Padded bandages and soft bedding are provided for small hygromas until the formation of a callus. Surgical intervention in reserved for recurrent, large or complicated hygromas and includes drainage or surgical excision.
Pleural effusions constitute a common entity in feline medicine. Laboratory evaluation of pleural fluids remains the cornerstone of a proper diagnosis. Total nucleated cell count, total protein concentration and haematocrit values are the most important indices, which, along with cytological findings, are used for the classification of an effusion (transudate, modified transudate, exudate, haemorrhagic effusion). Occasionally, the biochemical examination of effusions is necessary in order to determine the presence of fluid of a more specific aetiology (chyle, feline infectious peritonitis effusions, septic exudates), while microbiological examination remains a standard procedure in suspected septic effusions. After having considered the obtained information, clinicians are usually able to understand the aetiology behind cavitary fluid accumulation and thus make the best therapeutic decision for the cat patient.
Full-thickness mesh skin grafts in dogs and cats. Indications, pathophysiology of graft taking, surgical techniques and complications
Skin grafts are comprised of the epidermis and dermis. They are harvested from the donor site and transported to the recipient site of the same animal where they undergo adhesion, osmotic fl ow of plasma into the graft (plasmatic imbibition), vascular anastomosis and revascularization in order to be accepted by the recipient site. Full- thickness mesh skin grafts are most commonly used in the veterinary clinical setting in both dogs and cats for the reconstruction of skin defects located mainly on the limbs, where other reconstruction methods are not available. Grafts are placed on skin defects with healthy granulation tissue or on surgical wounds with adequate blood perfusion. Survival of feline grafts is far superior to that of canine grafts.
Abstracts Volume 5
Effect of Enterococcus faecium SF68® (FortiFlora®) administration in dogs with antibiotic responsive or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth diarrhοea
The objective of this study was to assess whether dogs suff ering from small intestinal diarrhoea due to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or antibiotic responsive diarrhoea would benefi t from a combination of Purina Veterinary Diets® EN Gastroenteric® Canine Formula and Purina Veterinary Diets® FortiFlora® Canine Probiotic Nutritional Supplement (Enterococcus faecium SF68®). The study involved twenty-six adult dogs presenting with symptoms compatible with chronic small intestinal diarrhoea that could not be attributed to any specifi c cause. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups: A (EN Gastroenteric plus FortiFlora sachet) and B (EN Gastroenteric plus placebo sachet). Reassessment of symptoms was scheduled every seven days over a 20-day period. Faeces were characterised based on their consistency. Biochemical and haematological parameters of all dogs participating in the study were within normal limits throughout the entire study period. During the fi rst week of the study, no statistically signifi cant diff erences were found between groups A and B in the characteristics of the diarrhoea. After a 14-day period, comparisons between groups showed that there was a statistically signifi cant diff erence (p = 0.0002) regarding resolution of diarrhoea in group A. During the third week of administration, group A maintained the positive outcome (p = 0.0001).
Εrythrogram is part of the complete blood count and includes the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, erythrocyte indices (mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration), red cell distribution width, the number and percentage of reticulocytes and erythrocyte morphology. Appropriate blood sampling and handling are essential for the validity of the erythrogram interpretation. Erythrogram major abnormalities are anemia, erythrocytosis/polycythemia, erythrocyte morphologic abnormalities and erythrocyte inclusions. Anemia can be either regenerative or nonregenerative. Regenerative anemia is divided into blood loss anemia and hemolytic anemia. Common causes of blood loss anemia are traumatic injuries and hemostatic disorders, while hemolytic anemia can be immune-mediated, microangiopathic, associated with Heinzbody formation or due to genetic defects of red blood cells. Nonregenerative anemia includes anemia of chronic disease, anemia of chronic renal failure, aplastic anemia and nutritional anemia. Erythrocytosis/polycythemia can be relative (hemoconcentration) or absolute, which is further divided into primary (polycythemia vera) and secondary. The appearance of abnormal erythrocytes can be either an artifact or associated with certain disorders. The erythrocyte inclusions are either of non-infectious origin, such as Howell-Jolly and Heinz bodies or related to infections, such as Babesia spp. and hemotropic Mycoplasma spp., the observation of which into the erythrocytes sets the defi nitive diagnosis of the relevant diseases.
Acid-base balance is an important homeostatic mechanism that focuses on maintaining a constant concentration of hydrogen ions in body fluids and it is expressed by the negative base-10 logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration (pH). The normal ranges of pH are between 7.35 and 7.45. However, when the concentration of H+ rises, a decrease of pH is observed and this condition is called acidosis. Conversely, a decrease in concentration of H+ increases pH, a condition termed alkalosis. When the above disturbances are caused by a change in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2), they are defi ned as respiratory disturbances (respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis), whereas if caused by a change in the concentration of bicarbonate ions (HCO3), they are described as metabolic disturbances (metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis). It is often possible that a combination of two or more disorders may occur (mixed disorders). Typically, the diagnosis of acid-base disorders is based on the measurement of pH, partial pressure of CO2 and the concentration of HCO3 in an arterial blood sample. In cases where the above control is not possible, the diagnosis or suspicion of occurrence of an acid-base disorder is established on the fi ndings of the clinical examination and electronic monitoring of vital functions. Knowledge of the mechanism by which a disease can cause an acid-base disorder is of signifi cant assistance to the veterinarian. The detection of any acid-base disturbance leads to early and intensive treatment which aims to eliminate the cause of primary disease.
Leukogram includes total and differential white blood cell counts, as well as leukocyte morphology. Appropriate blood sampling and handling are essential for the validity of the leukogram interpretation. Leukocytosis and leukopenia are associated with physiologic or pathologic conditions. From a clinical point of view, neutrophilia, neutropenia, lymphocytosis, lymphopenia, monocytosis and eosinophilia are considered the most important alterations in leukocyte numbers. Neutrophilia and monocytosis usually accompany infl ammatory diseases, but they are also observed in excess of steroids. Additionally, neutrophilia can be physiologic, as well as, lymphocytosis, which is further associated with chronic infl ammatory diseases. Eosinophilia typically occurs in hypersensitivity reactions and parasitisms. Neutropenia is mainly related to infectious diseases, while lymphopenia is usually steroid-induced or related to acute infectious diseases. Monocytopenia, eosinopenia, basophilia and basopenia have limited diagnostic signifi cance.Common morphologic changes of the leukocytes include the presence of immature, hypersegmented or toxic neutrophils, as well as reactive lymphocytes and various leukocyte inclusions. These may be of infectious origin, such as morulae of Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia ewingii or of non-infectious origin, such as siderotic inclusions.
The recent discovery of the existence in the retina of a third group of photosensitive cells, other than cones and rods, which have the capacity of stimulating the pupillary light reflex, has changed our knowledge of how the iris reacts to different wavelengths of light and introduced the concept of chromatic pupillary light reflex in eye examination. This is a test whereby the pupillary response is stimulated not by monochromatic white light, but successively by red and blue light, allowing the selective stimulation of photoreceptors. The chromatic pupillary light reflex is particularly useful in the diagnosis of sudden acquired retinal degeneration, progressive retinal atrophy, chorioretinopathies, retinal detachment, glaucoma, disorders of the optic nerve and optic chiasm and certain brain diseases that cause blindness.
Hip dysplasia in dogs is a multifactorial disease caused by hereditary and environmental factors. Most commonly seen among very young giant and chondrodystrophic breeds, it manifests as an abnormal development of the round ligament of the femoral head that leads to coxofemoral joint instability and (sub)luxation. The disease presents as hind limb lameness. In the young animal, this is due to pain caused by hyperextension of the soft tissues of the hip joint, whereas in adults it is caused by osteoarthritis resulting from the degenerative development of the disease. In addition to radiological examination, diagnosis is based on clinical signs and specific clinical trials in both the awake animal and the animal under deep sedation or/and general anaesthesia. Radiologic imaging requires several views, and findings are evaluated according to the animal’s age, stage of disease and clinical signs. The need for early assessment of hip dysplasia resulted in Prassinos N.N. the establishment of different classification systems according to radiological findings.
Thymoma is a rare neoplasm seen in aged cats that derives from thymic epithelial cells and is usually located in the cranial mediastinum. Clinical signs include dyspnoea, coughing, anorexia, lethargy or regurgitation. Feline thymoma may also be associated with myasthenia gravis or exfoliative dermatitis. Diagnosis of the tumour is based on diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography provides information concerning the consistency of the mass. The extent and invasiveness of the mass can only be determined by computed tomography. Cytologic examination can also facilitate diagnosis where thymic epithelial cells and small lymphocytes dominate. Surgery is the treatment of choice for feline thymomas with favourable results. Thymomas are approached through a median sternotomy or intercostal thoracotomy. Definite diagnosis of thymoma can only be confirmed by histopathologic examination. The prognosis of feline thymoma is favourable, providing it is not associated with paraneoplastic syndromes or metastatic disease.
Abstracts Volume 4
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasal planum is a malignant neoplasm commonly seen in older cats. Long-term ultraviolet light exposure and light pigmentation or depigmentation and sparsely-haired skin are considered main risk factors for SCC. This tumour can be slowly progressive and locally invasive with a low rate of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes or lungs. Skin lesions are characterized by erythema, crusts, erosions or deep ulcers. Diagnosis is based on history and physical examination and can be confirmed by histopathological examination of the skin. Nosectomy is the recommended treatment for the invasive SCC. Prognosis is usually good to excellent with good cosmetic results in completely resected tumours.
Management of an extensive partial and full thickness skin burn in a dog with the aid of medical honey
A 9-year-old male mixed breed dog was admitted for the management of a partial and full thickness thermal burn that was covering 45% of his body including the dorsal, lateral and ventral thorax and abdomen, medial thigh and caudal elbow. Medical honey (L-Mesitran® soft) was applied to the burn area on a daily basis and dressed with absorbent pads resulting in complete healing by contraction and epithelialisation 35 days after initial admission. Medical honey may be used as an effective alternative for the treatment of extensive skin burns.
Prospective study of 19 cases Canine chronic hepatitis (CH) is a group of liver diseases, the causes of which are different and little known, with similar clinical presentation and laboratory findings but with differences in the histological findings, prognosis and treatment.
The current prospective study concerns 19 cases of CH that were admitted, examined, diagnosed, treated and followed up at the Companion Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, A.U.Th. between October 2012 and October 2014. During that period, 35 animals were admitted with clinical symptoms suggestive of liver disease. However, only 19 animals with histologically confirmed CH were included in the study.
The majority of dogs were of mixed-breed with a mean age of 6.5 years. The most common symptoms included depression, anorexia and vomiting. Though observed in certain cases, disorders in the blood count were uncommon. The main laboratory finding was that of increased liver enzyme activity: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Histopathology revealed a varying degree of inflammation, mostly involving lymphocytes and plasma cells in every case, fibrosis in several cases and apoptosis and/or necrosis and regeneration in few cases. Finally, one case was characterized as copper-associated CH.
Elbow dysplasia is a condition that causes pain and lameness in large and giant breed dogs. Its origins are genetic and when combined with environmental factors, development of the elbow joint becomes abnormal. Originally, elbow osteochondrosis was considered to be the main cause of this condition. Modern studies claim that the condition, in most cases, is caused by various forms of incongruity between articular surfaces of the three joints forming the elbow. Treatment is surgical and should be performed before the development of osteoarthritic lesions in the joint. Multiple surgical techniques to correct this condition are described in the literature. In cases when radiological examination of the elbow joint reveals severe osteoarthritic lesions, the selection of surgical technique depends on lesion localization.
Tooth problems are very common among small animals. The veterinarian encounters them frequently, and quite often has to suggest tooth extraction. Periodontal disease and tooth fractures are the most common indication for extraction, while clotting defects or other pathological conditions which may endanger the animal’s life are contraindications. Appropriate pre-anaesthetic control and regional anaesthesia and analgesia should be considered before the extractions. The veterinarian should use proper instruments and pieces of equipment for such procedures. There are two basic extraction techniques: namely, the open and the closed technique. The choice of either technique will depend on several factors. The most usual complications after extraction are root fractures, massive post operative bleeding and soft tissue trauma. Postoperatively, the animal should receive the appropriate analgesics, antimicrobials, recommendations concerning the animal’s diet and home dental care.
Equine lymphoedema, a common pathologic condition characterized by lymph stasis, requires immediate treatment to ensure a positive outcome. Ascertaining the specific causative agent is not always possible. Despite typical signs of the syndrome, the complex pathogenesis impedes the establishment of an aetiologic treatment protocol. The use of flavonoids in human lymphoedema in recent years has provided the basis for their experimental use in equine lymphoedema. In this study, a treatment protocol for the management of lymphoedema was applied to five horses. The treatment, which included conservative measures, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial therapy as well as flavoinoids, provided encouraging results, indicating that flavonoids could be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of equine lymphoedema.
Abstracts Volume 3
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an intracellular, gram-negative aerobic bacterium, is the cause for granulocytic anaplasmosis in people, horses, dogs, cats, wolves, cattle and small ruminants. A. phagocytophilum mainly targets neutrophils and rarely eosinophilic granulocytes; in Europe it is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. A significant number of small mammals and deer comprise the reservoir for the microorganism in the wild. The majority of infected dogs remain asymptomatic, whereas those that develop clinical signs mostly present with non-specific signs like fever, depression or lethargy, anorexia and lameness. The most common laboratory finding of anaplasmosis is thrombocytopenia. Diagnosis is based on finding aggregates of the organism (morulae) in the cytoplasm of neutrophils, serological detection of specific antibodies and polymerase chain reaction. The treatment of choice is Doxycycline, administered per os at a dose of 5 mg/kg Β.W./12 hours for 2-4 weeks.
Τhe cause and pathophysiology of hiatal hernia are not yet fully understood, but hiatal hernia seldom appears in dogs and is rarer in cats. Sliding hiatal hernia is the most common type to present in clinical practice. Chinese Shar-Pei dogs are predisposed to the development of this type of hernia. The majority of clinical signs are due to gastroesophageal reflux. Diagnosis is based on diagnostic imaging, and esophagoscopy may provide useful information. It can be managed medically and surgically. The aim of surgical treatment is the anatomical repair and stabilization of the hernia. Prognosis for patients with hiatal hernia is usually favorable.
The aim of this review is to describe the etiology, pathophysiology and treatment of hiatal hernia in companion animals.
Rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament is one of the most common canine orthopedic disorders, usually caused by progressive degeneration of unknown etiology. Rarely, it can be caused by trauma, similar to that which occurs in people. Diagnosing this condition requires a detailed history, observation of the dog and physical examination of the stifle joint. Two orthopedic examinations are mandatory: the cranial “drawer” sign and the tibial compression test. Radiographic evaluation of the stifle joint must always be included to differentiate it from other pathological conditions and, also, to receive information regarding the acute or chronic nature of the rupture. Treatment for cranial cruciate ligament rupture can be either conservative or surgical. A number of surgical techniques have been previously described in the literature; however, no study has yet conclusively proven that a single technique is better than any other. Because of this fact, technique selection has been a matter of debate among orthopedic veterinary surgeons.
Obesity ranks as the most common nutritional disorder reaching epidemic proportions among dogs and cats, at least in the developed world. Caused by energy intake exceeding energy loss, it results in adipose tissue accumulation in the organism negatively affecting an individual’s health. The list of hormones, neurotransmitters and substances secreted by adipose tissue itself, proven to have an active part in body weight modulation, is extensive. Predisposing factors contributing to the appearance of this disease include age, gender, breed and living conditions. The most common conditions to be associated with obesity are osteoarthritis, diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory system, hypertension, hepatic lipidosis and type II diabetes mellitus. The evaluation and grading of obesity is based on the findings of observation and palpation of the animal, taking into consideration the predefined guidelines. The aim of any treatment plan applied in obesity management is the reduction of energy input and increase in output. This is mainly accomplished by reducing daily consumed calories and increasing physical activity. A fundamental requirement for successful management is that the owner understands the animal’s problem and is willing to cooperate with their veterinarian on a long-term basis. Finally, re-evaluation of body weight should occur at monthly intervals so that the dietary plan can be adjusted accordingly.
Spirocerca lupi infection is an uncommon cause of pyothorax in the dog. In the present report, two cases of canine spirocercosis-associated pyothorax are described. Both cases demonstrated historical or clinical evidence of esophageal dysphagia, manifested as odynophagia and/or regurgitation, and one showed clinical findings suggestive of pleural effusion such as weakness, depression and muffled heart sounds. Thoracic radiography in the first case revealed pleural effusion and soft tissue opacity located at the caudodorsal aspect of the mediastinum, while S. lupi ova were found in fecal examination of both dogs. The first dog was euthanized at his owner’s request, while the second died suddenly during hospitalization. The definitive association between spirocercosis and pyothorax was established post mortem. These cases emphasize the importance of considering esophageal spirocercosis as a cause of canine pyothorax in highly endemic areas.
Abstracts Volume 2
The purpose of this study was the study of dogs with patellar luxation (PL) that were presented at the Companion Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece during 2004 - 2010. Ninety-five dogs were included in the study. Among the information derived from the clinical examination records were breed, age, body weight, clinical signs upon presentation, site and grade of luxation, type of treatment and outcome of the dogs. Statistical analysis revealed that PL is observed more frequently in mixed breed (27.4%), small sized (61%) and female (52.6%) dogs. Regarding purebred dogs, PL has been more frequently diagnosed in Yorkshire Terriers, Poodles and Chihuahuas. PL was mostly medial (84.1%), bilateral (56.3%) and congenital/developmental (100%). In addition, it was noticed that diagnosis mainly concerned young dogs, aged less than two years (50.5%) and the major complaint upon presentation was lameness (69.5%). The progress of dogs which were surgically treated was considered excellent by the majority of the owners (75%), while post-operative complications were rare and mainly related to the presence of osteosynthesis materials. According to the owners, the majority of the dogs that were treated conservatively, lameness did not occur (35%) or remained stable (45%).
Drug toxicities are relatively common in dogs and cats and they can be classified into type Α or predictable which are caused by the pharmacological or the intrinsic toxic effects of the responsible drug and into type Β or non-predictable that are unrelated to the above. The appearance of type A drug toxicities depends on multiple factors that are related to the affected animal, the dosage regimen and the simultaneous administration of other drugs. Clinical manifestations most commonly originate from organ systems where the responsible drug accumulates or those that are characterized by an increased metabolic rate. In contrast, type B drug toxicities commonly affect organs presenting suitable proteins that after coupling with the drug or its metabolites (haptens) form complete antigens or organs that trap circulating immune complexes. Drugs most commonly responsible for toxicities in dogs and cats include aminoglycosides, macrocyclic lactones (avermectins and milbemycins), pyrethroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, phenobarbital and diazepam.
White Line Disease (W.L.D.) refers to hoof wall separation at the junction between the stratum medium and stratum internum of the epidermis that subsequently forms a cavity. This study included 56 horses with W.L.D. that were admitted to the Equine Unit, Companion Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki over the last 3 years. The cause of W.L.D. has been attributed to incorrect hot shoeing (overheated-dried out hoof) in 18 horses, overhydration of the hoof in 10 horses, dehydration of the hoof due to environmental factors in 6 horses, improper shoeing (“nail bind”- small or inappropriate horseshoe, contamination of nail holes) in 8 horses and combination of the above in 6 horses. Stall hygiene (stall bedding) and training ground were inappropriate in 48 cases. Disease affected the forelimbs, unilaterally or bilaterally in 39 (69.64%) horses and hindlimbs, unilaterally or bilaterally in 10 (17.85%) horses. In the remaining 7 (12.5%) horses forelimbs and hindlimbs were randomly affected. Therapeutically, debridement of the cavity, daily rinsing with aqueous solution eosin 2%, heart-bar shoe, biotin and rest were recommended. The majority of horses (91%) responded positively in the treatment protocol described above.
This retrospective study reveals the relatively high prevalence of W.L.D. in the region of Thessaloniki considering the fact that 15-20 horses were affected per year (4% of the total population), while a 20% present with secondary disease with guarded or poor prognosis.
Dermatologic emergencies are rare in clinical practice and most commonly have an acute onset. A canine or feline skin disease can become life-threatening because of sepsis and toxemia, loss of fluids, protein, and electrolytes and the simultaneous involvement of vital internal organs. Emergency skin diseases include bacterial cellulitis in dogs, necrotizing fasciitis in dogs and cats, toxic shock syndrome in dogs, subcutaneous and systemic fungal infections in dogs and cats, angioedema in dogs and cats, autoimmune skin diseases with extensive ulceration in dogs and cats, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in dogs and cats, vasculitis in dogs and cats, sterile postural erythroderma (superficial suppurative necrolytic dermatitis) of miniature Schnauzers, sulfonamide hypersensitivity syndrome in dogs, and sterile neutrophilic dermatosis (subcorneal and follicular neutrophilic pustular dermatitis or Sweet’s syndrome) in dogs. The diagnosis of these diseases is based on history, clinical signs and the results of various laboratory examinations (cytologic, microbiologic, histopathologic etc.). However, in addition to the definitive diagnosis of the skin disease itself, clinical and laboratory (complete blood count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, coagulation profile etc.) examinations for potential systemic complications are also important. Treatment should begin as soon as possible and includes the general supportive measures applicable to all emergency cases and the specific treatment of the skin disease.
Abstracts Volume 1
Peripheral nerve damage can occur as a consequence of accidental or iatrogenic injury caused by sharp or blunt trauma. Damage to peripheral nerves often accompanies orthopedic injuries (e.g. fracture, dislocation) and of particular clinical importance is considered the damage to nerves of the limbs. The mechanism of nerve degeneration and regeneration after nerve injury is complex. Failure of nerve restoration of normal function and the emergence of complications may both lead to permanent disability. Knowledge of pathophysiology and regeneration process is considered fundamental for the clinician, because clinical symptoms can be interpreted more accurately. Serial physical examinations and electrophysiology studies can be used to evaluate the prognosis and the suitable method of treatment. In many cases surgical exploration of the affected area can provide accurate prognostic information. Regardless of the treatment method chosen, recovery progresses relatively slow. The owner should be informed about the increased nursing care requirements involved in those cases, because his collaboration is considered essential in their management.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence in dogs and cats and it is mainly caused by motor vehicle accident, fall, human violent acts and attacks from other animals. Damages in TBI are divided in primary and secondary. Primary damages take place immediately as a result of the direct mechanical destruction of the neural tissue at the time of trauma, while secondary brain damages occur within a few minutes or days following the traumatic event and they are caused by systemic extracranial injuries and intracranial biochemical alterations.
Initial assessment of an animal with TBI is focused on the life-threatening injuries and it is followed by the performance of neurologic examination.
It is difficult for the clinician to control primary brain damage. Treatment efforts must start immediately and their aim is to stabilize the animal, prevent and treat the secondary brain damages. At first general measures are taken to restore and maintain brain oxygenation. This is achieved by supporting the circulatory system with fluids and by oxygen supplementation. The aim of instituting specific measures is to minimize the brain injury.
TBI is associated with high mortality rates in both humans and animals. However, dogs and cats exhibit remarkable rehabilitation ability, provided that extended follow up is granted after a severe brain trauma. For this reason, it is strongly recommended to not infer hasty conclusions about prognosis based on the initial status of an animal presented with TBI.
Feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by irreversible structural lesions of the kidneys and may lead to chronic renal failure (CRF), which eventually results in accumulation of metabolic toxins and dysregulation of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. CKD mainly affects geriatric cats. In the majority of animals the initiating factor of CKD remains unclear. Idiopathic, familial, congenital, inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic causes have been suggested. Once lesions have adequately progressed, the condition is generally self-perpetuated. The main clinical signs are anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Early diagnosis of CKD is crucial. Anaemia, azotaemia, hyperphosphataemia, and hypokalaemia may be detected by laboratory examination. Radiology and ultrasonography of the abdominal cavity may contribute to identification of the initiating factor. Renal histopathology may aid in diagnosing the primary cause. Consequences of CKD are multisystemic and include arterial hypertension, renal secondary hyperparathyroidism, anaemia, gastrointestinal complications, and acid-base and diverse electrolyte disturbances.
Corneal damage in dog and cat can alter its clarity and transparency in light, which are essential for its function. Corneal lesions include edema, neovascularisation, pigmentation, microcrystal depositions, ulceration, inflammation or regenerative tissue formation, scar formation and finally those involving its size and curvature. This lesion may occur solely or in conjunction and may be caused by corneal, other ophthalmic or systemic diseases. In this study the above mentioned corneal lesions of the dog and cat are extensively reported and described.