Scientific Journal

Scientific Journal of the Hellenic Companion Animal Veterinary Society (HCAVS)


T1 and T2 values of an Agar-based phantom with inclusion of tumour

Damianou C. PhD, Professor, University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus
Spanoudes Κ. DVM, PhD student, VET EX MACHINA LTD, Nicosia, Cyprus


An agar-based mimicking material which includes a tumour was developed. The phantom can be used to evaluate the temperature produced by a focused ultrasound transducer.

Materials and methods

Τhe tumour model was made out of water, agar (6 % w/v) and 4 % w/v silica. In the tissue surrounding the tumour no silica was used.


The slight difference in silica content between tumour and surrounding tissue resulted in excellent contrast between tumour and tissue in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Based on coronal images showing the transducer and tumour/tissue it was possible to precisely move the focused ultrasound beam within the phantom using an MR compatible positioning device. MR temperature was detected within the tumour and outside the tumour. T1 and T2 values were measured in a 3 T MRI.


Due to the inclusion of silica in the tumour the absorption was increased within the tumour, and therefore, higher temperatures were measured in the tumour. Temperature across a plane parallel to the beam showed some deflection of the beam in areas of tumour curvature. This is an excellent tumour model that can be used to evaluate the physics of focused ultrasound.


  • Antoniou A, Damianou C (2022) Simple, inexpensive, and ergonomic phantom for quality assurance control of MRI guided Focused Ultrasound systems. J Ultrasound
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