Bourdekas P. DVM, Alphavet, Athens
Panopoulos I. DVM, Phd, DipECVDI, Alphavet, Athens
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition in older companion animals. Ultrasonography contributes to the evaluation and follow-up of the disease.
Materials and methods
Twenty dogs and thirty cats with laboratory-confirmed CKD were evaluated sonographically, using B-mode, Color Doppler, Pulsed Doppler and elastography.
In the population of twenty dogs and thirty cats, the following findings were detected with the following frequency respectively: reduction in thickness (15% & 80%) and hyperechogenicity of the renal cortex (85% & 86.6%), reduction/loss of corticomedullary differentiation (65 % & 76.6%), increased outer medullary thickness (5% & 0%), decrease renal volume (35% & 66.6%), absence of anisotropy artifact (80% & 90%), abnormal contour ( 65% & 50%), cysts (25% & 46.6%) and infarcts (0% & 6.6%), renal pelvis distension (5% & 0%), reduced vascularization (50% & 60%), increased Resistance-Index (35% & 40%), elastographic abnormalities (10% & 6.6%), presence of medullary lines (0% & 3.3%) and increased thickness “Rim sign” (0% & 3.3%).
Renal ultrasonographic examination allows the evaluation of multiple parameters for diagnosis and monitoring of CKD in dogs and cats. Corticomedullary differentiation, cortical echogenicity and thickness, are the main criteria for basic assessment of CKD, applicable in any veterinary facility, with high repeatability and without high demands on equipment.
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