Athanasiou A.N. DVM, Specialty Intern in Neurology and Neurosurgery, San Marco Veterinary Clinic and Laboratory, Veggiano, Italy
Burbaitė E. DVM, Specialty Intern in Neurology and Neurosurgery, San Marco Veterinary Clinic and Laboratory, Veggiano, Italy
Cocchetto A. DVM, ECVN Resident in Veterinary Neurology and Neurosurgery, San Marco Veterinary Clinic and Laboratory, Veggiano, Italy
Menchetti M. DVM, Ph.D, Dipl. ECVN, EBVS® European Specialist in Veterinary Neurology, Head of Neurology and Neurosurgery Department, San Marco Veterinary Clinic and Laboratory, Veggiano, Italy
The aim of the present case report is to describe the relevant clinical and diagnostic imaging findings in a dog suffering from fungal meningoencephalitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans.
A 26-month-old, male, mixed breed dog was presented with acute onset of sensory depression and severe weight loss. The neurological examination showed the involvement of forebrain, left vestibular system and the cervical and lumbar region of the spinal cord. Full haemato-biochemistry, serology, coagulation profile, electrophoresis, urine test and culture were performed together with abdominal ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) analysis.
The laboratory findings indicated a mild inflammation. The MRI revealed a single large encephalic mass lesion along with multiple foci of encephalopathy and meningeal contrast enhancement, most likely indicative of an inflammatory-infectious process (fungal amongst others). CSF analysis and cytological examination showed mixed pleocytosis associated with the presence of yeast organisms. PCR-Real time on CSF sample resulted positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. The prognosis was poor and the patient deceased after two days of hospitalization due to the occurrence of seizures and increased intracranial pressure.
The present case report is an example of clinical and diagnostic findings in an advanced central nervous system cryptococcosis.
- Sykes JE, Sturges BK, Cannon MS, Gericota B, Higgins RJ, Trivedi SR, Dickinson PJ, Vernau KM, Meyer W, Wisner ER (2010) Clinical signs, imaging features, neuropathology, and outcome in cats and dogs with central nervous system cryptococcosis from California. Journal of veterinary internal medicine. Nov 24(6),1427-38.
- O’Toole TE, Sato AF, Rozanski EA (2003) Cryptococcosis of the central nervous system in a dog. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Jun 1, 222(12), 1722-5.
- Tiches D, Vite CH, Dayrell-Hart B, Steinberg SA, Gross S, Lexa F (1998) A case of canine central nervous system cryptococcosis: manage- ment with fluconazole. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association Mar 1, 34(2),145-51.
- Lucchetti BN, Kent M, Barber RM, Wells B, Meichner K (2018) What Is Your Neurologic Diagnosis? Journal of the American Veterinary Medi- cal Association Jul 1,253(1), 39-42.