Hellenic Journal of Companion Animal Medicine https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam <p>Welcome to the <strong>Hellenic Journal of Companion Animal Medicine</strong>, the official scientific journal of the <a href="https://www.hcavs.gr">Hellenic Companion Animal Veterinary Society (H.C.A.V.S.)</a>.</p> Hellenic Companion Animal Veterinary Society en-US Hellenic Journal of Companion Animal Medicine 2241-1569 Companion animal veterinarians as One Health heroes https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/112 Pikka Jokelainen Copyright (c) 2021 Pikka Jokelainen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-05-30 2021-05-30 9 2 Equine Sarcoids. A therapeutic challenge https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/111 Nikolaos Diakakis Panagiota Tyrnenopoulou Copyright (c) 2021 Nikolaos Diakakis, Panagiota Tyrnenopoulou https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-05-30 2021-05-30 9 2 The effect of artificial colloid solutions on renal function in severely ill dogs https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/109 <p>Colloid solutions are compounds with high molecular weight that remain intravascularly after their intravenous administration, thereby increasing colloid oncotic pressure. Colloids are of two types: natural (whole blood, albumins) and artificial (dextran and gelatine solutions, hydroxyethyl starches). Indications for artificial colloids (AC) administration include hypovolemic shock, hypoalbuminemia, haemorrhage, sepsis, hypotension or fluid accumulation in the interstitial space. Their use can be greatly beneficial; however, it can lead to anaphylactic reactions, coagulopathies, acute kidney injury (AKI) and hepatic impairment, especially when given in patients with sepsis. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the association between AC administration and AKI development in intensive care unit (ICU) in dogs. The studies were collected from the major medical electronic databases. Only three studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated for their methods, the limitations were identified, and the results were presented. As it turns out from the three studies, the administration of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 and 250/0.5/5:1 is not associated with AKI and it does not increase the mortality rate in ICU patients, when given constantly up to 10 days or in low doses. This review is highly informative, as until today, there are no guidelines for AC administration in companion animals. AC administration seems to be beneficial and safe in some cases, when given in low doses and for specific time period. However, the existing data is limited, and further clinical studies are needed to establish safer results.</p> Evdoxia Magrioti Eleni Prastiti Vasileios Christodoulou Despina Christofi Kiriaki Pavlidou Ioannis Savvas Copyright (c) 2021 Evdoxia Magrioti, Eleni Prastiti, Vasileios Christodoulou, Despina Christofi, Kiriaki Pavlidou, Ioannis Savvas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-05-30 2021-05-30 9 2 Clinical signs of corneal lesions in dog and cat https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/108 <p>Corneal damage in dog and cat can alter its clarity and transparency in light, which are essential for its function. Corneal lesions include edema, neovascularisation, pigmentation, microcrystal depositions, ulceration, inflammation or regenerative tissue formation, scar formation and finally those involving its size and curvature. This lesion may occur solely or in conjunction and may be caused by corneal, other ophthalmic or systemic diseases. In this study the above mentioned corneal lesions of the dog and cat are extensively reported and described.</p> I. K. Liapis Copyright (c) 2012 I. K. Liapis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2012-06-22 2012-06-22 9 2 24 37 Aetiopathogenesis and consequences of chronic feline kidney disease https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/107 <p>Feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by irreversible structural lesions of the kidneys and may lead to chronic renal failure (CRF), which eventually results in accumulation of metabolic toxins and dysregulation of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. CKD mainly affects geriatric cats. In the majority of animals the initiating factor of CKD remains unclear. Idiopathic, familial, congenital, inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic causes have been suggested. Once lesions have adequately progressed, the condition is generally self-perpetuated. The main clinical signs are anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Early diagnosis of CKD is crucial. Anaemia, azotaemia, hyperphosphataemia, and hypokalaemia may be detected by laboratory examination. Radiology and ultrasonography of the abdominal cavity may contribute to identification of the initiating factor. Renal histopathology may aid in diagnosing the primary cause. Consequences of CKD are multisystemic and include arterial hypertension, renal secondary hyperparathyroidism, anaemia, gastrointestinal complications, and acid-base and diverse electrolyte disturbances.</p> K. K. Adamama-Moraitou T. S. Rallis Copyright (c) 2012 K. K. Adamama-Moraitou, T. S. Rallis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2012-06-22 2012-06-22 9 2 2 23 Traumatic brain injury in the dog and cat https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/106 <p>Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence in dogs and cats and it is mainly caused by motor vehicle accident, fall, human violent acts and attacks from other animals. Damages in TBI are divided in primary and secondary. Primary damages take place immediately as a result of the direct mechanical destruction of the neural tissue at the time of trauma, while secondary brain damages occur within a few minutes or days following the traumatic event and they are caused by systemic extracranial injuries and intracranial biochemical alterations.&nbsp;Initial assessment of an animal with TBI is focused on the life-threatening injuries and it is followed by the performance of neurologic examination.&nbsp;It is difficult for the clinician to control primary brain damage. Treatment efforts must start immediately and their aim is to stabilize the animal, prevent and treat the secondary brain damages. At first general measures are taken to restore and maintain brain oxygenation. This is achieved by supporting the circulatory system with fluids and by oxygen supplementation. The aim of instituting specific measures is to minimize the brain injury.&nbsp;TBI is associated with high mortality rates in both humans and animals. However, dogs and cats exhibit remarkable rehabilitation ability, provided that extended follow up is granted after a severe brain trauma. For this reason, it is strongly recommended to not infer hasty conclusions about prognosis based on the initial status of an animal presented with TBI.</p> M. Kantere P. Tsompanidou G. M. Kazakos Copyright (c) 2012 M. Kantere, P. Tsompanidou, G. M. Kazakos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2012-12-21 2012-12-21 9 2 20 38 Peripheral nerve damage in companion animals https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/105 <p>Peripheral nerve damage can occur as a consequence of accidental or iatrogenic injury caused by sharp or blunt trauma. Damage to peripheral nerves often accompanies orthopedic injuries (e.g. fracture, dislocation) and of particular clinical importance is considered the damage to nerves of the limbs. The mechanism of nerve degeneration and regeneration after nerve injury is complex. Failure of nerve restoration of normal function and the emergence of complications may both lead to permanent disability. Knowledge of pathophysiology and regeneration process is considered fundamental for the clinician, because clinical symptoms can be interpreted more accurately. Serial physical examinations and electrophysiology studies can be used to evaluate the prognosis and the suitable method of treatment. In many cases surgical exploration of the affected area can provide accurate prognostic information. Regardless of the treatment method chosen, recovery progresses relatively slow. The owner should be informed about the increased nursing care requirements involved in those cases, because his collaboration is considered essential in their management.</p> A. Anatolitou G. Kazakos N. N. Prassinos Copyright (c) 2012 A. Anatolitou, G. Kazakos, N. N. Prassinos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2012-12-21 2012-12-21 9 2 2 19 Jugular vein catheter placement https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/104 Dimitra Pardali Copyright (c) 2013 D. Pardali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2013-06-14 2013-06-14 9 2 57 63 Vaginal smear cytological examination of the bitch https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/103 Haralabos Ververidis Konstantinos Boscos Copyright (c) 2013 H. Ververidis, K. Boscos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2013-06-14 2013-06-14 9 2 45 55 Dermatologic emergencies in the dog and the cat https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/102 <p>Dermatologic emergencies are rare in clinical practice and most commonly have an acute onset. A canine or feline skin disease can become life-threatening because of sepsis and toxemia, loss of fluids, protein, and electrolytes and the simultaneous involvement of vital internal organs. Emergency skin diseases include bacterial cellulitis in dogs, necrotizing fasciitis in dogs and cats, toxic shock syndrome in dogs, subcutaneous and systemic fungal infections in dogs and cats, angioedema in dogs and cats, autoimmune skin diseases with extensive ulceration in dogs and cats, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in dogs and cats, vasculitis in dogs and cats, sterile postural erythroderma (superficial suppurative necrolytic dermatitis) of miniature Schnauzers, sulfonamide hypersensitivity syndrome in dogs, and sterile neutrophilic dermatosis (subcorneal and follicular neutrophilic pustular dermatitis or Sweet’s syndrome) in dogs. The diagnosis of these diseases is based on history, clinical signs and the results of various laboratory examinations (cytologic, microbiologic, histopathologic etc.). However, in addition to the definitive diagnosis of the skin disease itself, clinical and laboratory (complete blood count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, coagulation profile etc.) examinations for potential systemic complications are also important. Treatment should begin as soon as possible and includes the general supportive measures applicable to all emergency cases and the specific treatment of the skin disease.</p> M. N. Saridomichelakis Copyright (c) 2013 N. Saridomichelakis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2013-06-14 2013-06-14 9 2 23 42