Hellenic Journal of Companion Animal Medicine https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam <p>Welcome to the <strong>Hellenic Journal of Companion Animal Medicine</strong>, the official scientific journal of the <a href="https://www.hcavs.gr">Hellenic Companion Animal Veterinary Society (H.C.A.V.S.)</a>.</p> Hellenic Companion Animal Veterinary Society en-US Hellenic Journal of Companion Animal Medicine 2241-1569 Clinical signs of corneal lesions in dog and cat https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/108 <p>Corneal damage in dog and cat can alter its clarity and transparency in light, which are essential for its function. Corneal lesions include edema, neovascularisation, pigmentation, microcrystal depositions, ulceration, inflammation or regenerative tissue formation, scar formation and finally those involving its size and curvature. This lesion may occur solely or in conjunction and may be caused by corneal, other ophthalmic or systemic diseases. In this study the above mentioned corneal lesions of the dog and cat are extensively reported and described.</p> I. K. Liapis Copyright (c) 2012 I. K. Liapis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2012-06-22 2012-06-22 9 2 24 37 Aetiopathogenesis and consequences of chronic feline kidney disease https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/107 <p>Feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by irreversible structural lesions of the kidneys and may lead to chronic renal failure (CRF), which eventually results in accumulation of metabolic toxins and dysregulation of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. CKD mainly affects geriatric cats. In the majority of animals the initiating factor of CKD remains unclear. Idiopathic, familial, congenital, inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic causes have been suggested. Once lesions have adequately progressed, the condition is generally self-perpetuated. The main clinical signs are anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Early diagnosis of CKD is crucial. Anaemia, azotaemia, hyperphosphataemia, and hypokalaemia may be detected by laboratory examination. Radiology and ultrasonography of the abdominal cavity may contribute to identification of the initiating factor. Renal histopathology may aid in diagnosing the primary cause. Consequences of CKD are multisystemic and include arterial hypertension, renal secondary hyperparathyroidism, anaemia, gastrointestinal complications, and acid-base and diverse electrolyte disturbances.</p> K. K. Adamama-Moraitou T. S. Rallis Copyright (c) 2012 K. K. Adamama-Moraitou, T. S. Rallis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2012-06-22 2012-06-22 9 2 2 23 Traumatic brain injury in the dog and cat https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/106 <p>Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence in dogs and cats and it is mainly caused by motor vehicle accident, fall, human violent acts and attacks from other animals. Damages in TBI are divided in primary and secondary. Primary damages take place immediately as a result of the direct mechanical destruction of the neural tissue at the time of trauma, while secondary brain damages occur within a few minutes or days following the traumatic event and they are caused by systemic extracranial injuries and intracranial biochemical alterations.&nbsp;Initial assessment of an animal with TBI is focused on the life-threatening injuries and it is followed by the performance of neurologic examination.&nbsp;It is difficult for the clinician to control primary brain damage. Treatment efforts must start immediately and their aim is to stabilize the animal, prevent and treat the secondary brain damages. At first general measures are taken to restore and maintain brain oxygenation. This is achieved by supporting the circulatory system with fluids and by oxygen supplementation. The aim of instituting specific measures is to minimize the brain injury.&nbsp;TBI is associated with high mortality rates in both humans and animals. However, dogs and cats exhibit remarkable rehabilitation ability, provided that extended follow up is granted after a severe brain trauma. For this reason, it is strongly recommended to not infer hasty conclusions about prognosis based on the initial status of an animal presented with TBI.</p> M. Kantere P. Tsompanidou G. M. Kazakos Copyright (c) 2012 M. Kantere, P. Tsompanidou, G. M. Kazakos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2012-12-21 2012-12-21 9 2 20 38 Peripheral nerve damage in companion animals https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/105 <p>Peripheral nerve damage can occur as a consequence of accidental or iatrogenic injury caused by sharp or blunt trauma. Damage to peripheral nerves often accompanies orthopedic injuries (e.g. fracture, dislocation) and of particular clinical importance is considered the damage to nerves of the limbs. The mechanism of nerve degeneration and regeneration after nerve injury is complex. Failure of nerve restoration of normal function and the emergence of complications may both lead to permanent disability. Knowledge of pathophysiology and regeneration process is considered fundamental for the clinician, because clinical symptoms can be interpreted more accurately. Serial physical examinations and electrophysiology studies can be used to evaluate the prognosis and the suitable method of treatment. In many cases surgical exploration of the affected area can provide accurate prognostic information. Regardless of the treatment method chosen, recovery progresses relatively slow. The owner should be informed about the increased nursing care requirements involved in those cases, because his collaboration is considered essential in their management.</p> A. Anatolitou G. Kazakos N. N. Prassinos Copyright (c) 2012 A. Anatolitou, G. Kazakos, N. N. Prassinos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2012-12-21 2012-12-21 9 2 2 19 Jugular vein catheter placement https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/104 Dimitra Pardali Copyright (c) 2013 D. Pardali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2013-06-14 2013-06-14 9 2 57 63 Vaginal smear cytological examination of the bitch https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/103 Haralabos Ververidis Konstantinos Boscos Copyright (c) 2013 H. Ververidis, K. Boscos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2013-06-14 2013-06-14 9 2 45 55 Dermatologic emergencies in the dog and the cat https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/102 <p>Dermatologic emergencies are rare in clinical practice and most commonly have an acute onset. A canine or feline skin disease can become life-threatening because of sepsis and toxemia, loss of fluids, protein, and electrolytes and the simultaneous involvement of vital internal organs. Emergency skin diseases include bacterial cellulitis in dogs, necrotizing fasciitis in dogs and cats, toxic shock syndrome in dogs, subcutaneous and systemic fungal infections in dogs and cats, angioedema in dogs and cats, autoimmune skin diseases with extensive ulceration in dogs and cats, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in dogs and cats, vasculitis in dogs and cats, sterile postural erythroderma (superficial suppurative necrolytic dermatitis) of miniature Schnauzers, sulfonamide hypersensitivity syndrome in dogs, and sterile neutrophilic dermatosis (subcorneal and follicular neutrophilic pustular dermatitis or Sweet’s syndrome) in dogs. The diagnosis of these diseases is based on history, clinical signs and the results of various laboratory examinations (cytologic, microbiologic, histopathologic etc.). However, in addition to the definitive diagnosis of the skin disease itself, clinical and laboratory (complete blood count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, coagulation profile etc.) examinations for potential systemic complications are also important. Treatment should begin as soon as possible and includes the general supportive measures applicable to all emergency cases and the specific treatment of the skin disease.</p> M. N. Saridomichelakis Copyright (c) 2013 N. Saridomichelakis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2013-06-14 2013-06-14 9 2 23 42 White Line Disease https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/101 <p>White Line Disease (W.L.D.) refers to hoof wall separation at the junction between the stratum medium and stratum internum of the epidermis that subsequently forms a cavity. This study included 56 horses with W.L.D. that were admitted to the Equine Unit, Companion Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki over the last 3 years. The cause of W.L.D. has been attributed to incorrect hot shoeing (overheated-dried out hoof) in 18 horses, overhydration of the hoof in 10 horses, dehydration of the hoof due to environmental factors in 6 horses, improper shoeing (“nail bind”- small or inappropriate horseshoe, contamination of nail holes) in 8 horses and combination of the above in 6 horses. Stall hygiene (stall bedding) and training ground were inappropriate in 48 cases. Disease affected the forelimbs, unilaterally or bilaterally in 39 (69.64%) horses and hindlimbs, unilaterally or bilaterally in 10 (17.85%) horses. In the remaining 7 (12.5%) horses forelimbs and hindlimbs were randomly affected. Therapeutically, debridement of the cavity, daily rinsing with aqueous solution eosin 2%, heart-bar shoe, biotin and rest were recommended. The majority of horses (91%) responded positively in the treatment protocol described above.&nbsp;This retrospective study reveals the relatively high prevalence of W.L.D. in the region of Thessaloniki considering the fact that 15-20 horses were affected per year (4% of the total population), while a 20% present with secondary disease with guarded or poor prognosis.</p> N. Diakakis V. Karagouni Copyright (c) 2013 N. Diakakis, V. Karagouni https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2013-06-14 2013-06-14 9 2 5 21 Τissue handling by the practitioner; from collection to submission of the sample to the histopathology lab https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/100 D. Psalla Copyright (c) 2013 D. Psalla https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2013-12-20 2013-12-20 9 2 47 58 Drug Toxicities in dogs and cats https://hjcam.hcavs.gr/index.php/hjcam/article/view/99 <p>Drug toxicities are relatively common in dogs and cats and they can be classified into type Α or&nbsp;predictable which are caused by the pharmacological or the intrinsic toxic effects of the responsible&nbsp;drug and into type Β or non-predictable that are unrelated to the above. The appearance of&nbsp;type A drug toxicities depends on multiple factors that are related to the affected animal, the dosage&nbsp;regimen and the simultaneous administration of other drugs. Clinical manifestations most&nbsp;commonly originate from organ systems where the responsible drug accumulates or those that&nbsp;are characterized by an increased metabolic rate. In contrast, type B drug toxicities commonly&nbsp;affect organs presenting suitable proteins that after coupling with the drug or its metabolites&nbsp;(haptens) form complete antigens or organs that trap circulating immune complexes. Drugs most&nbsp;commonly responsible for toxicities in dogs and cats include aminoglycosides, macrocyclic lactones&nbsp;(avermectins and milbemycins), pyrethroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, phenobarbital&nbsp;and diazepam.</p> M. N. Saridomichelakis Copyright (c) 2013 M. N. Saridomichelakis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2013-12-20 2013-12-20 9 2 23 45